Causes of Male Infertility: Abnormalities of Sperm

It is the “spermatogenic dysfunction”, that is the failure to make sperm, which is overwhelmingly a common cause of male infertility.

Poor Sperm Condition

It is a condition where there are only a few sperm. Depending on the degree, we will do artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization, and in cases where there in an extremely low number of sperm it becomes a candidate for micro-insemination.



It is a bad state of the motility rate of the sperm. Depending on the course and condition, we will do artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization or micro-insemination.

Sperm Malformation

It is a condition where there are many sperms that are malformed. We will choose normal sperm and do in vitro fertilization and micro-insemination.



This is a condition where there is not even one sperm found in the seminal fluid, but we can collect almost half of the patient’s sperm from the testicles and epididymis through TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction). If we find even just one sperm, then it will be a possibility of pregnancy through ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection- “micro insemination”), where we directly inject the sperm in to the oocyte.

Other Sperm Abnormalities

  • Low amount of semen
  • White blood cell count is greater than the reference value (because it represents inflammation, it is not good if there are many)

Semen Reference Value (Issued by the WHO in 2021)

We are providing treatment based on the sperm criteria from the World Health Organization.

Volume of Semen 1.4ml or greater
Concentration of Sperm At least 16 million per 1 ml
Motility rate 42% or greater
Total motile sperm count 9.4 million
Progressive 30% or greater
Normal morphology 4% or greater
Abnormal/Malformation rate 96% or less
White blood cell count Less than 1 million per 1 ml